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URINARY SYSTEM

Urinary system, comprising of Kidneys, Ureter tubes, and Bladder is the chief disposal unit of the body.

Kidneys
They are the eliminators of urea, uric acids, toxins or poisons from the system. They are located in the rear, near mid-back, one on ether side of vertebral column, between 11th Thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae. Each Kidney is about 4 inches long, 2 inches wide and 1 inches deep. They filter wastes from the blood and produce urine. They purify blood and also regulate fluid in the body.

Malfunctioning of Kidneys can be responsible for Bright's Disease, diabetic troubles, Dropsy (Swollen and puffed conditions), Lumbago (catch in the back), Eye troubles, Kidney stones, Urination troubles etc.

Ureter Tubes
They are narrow and elastic passageways, through which the urine passes from Kidney to Bladder. They are tubes with a very small diameter.

Urine does not move by gravity, but moves by peristalsis (waves of contracting circular muscle).

Bladder
It is a closed sac, connected with the Kidneys by ureter tubes. It receives urine from the Kidneys and stores it for periodical release. Its position and shape changes according to amount of filling.

It may be noted that prostate gland plays an indirect role in urination troubles. Prostate encircles the urethra (out-let tube for urine) and if the prostate is swollen or enlarged, it exerts pressure on the urethra, creating difficulty in passing urine.

foot print

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Principal organs in this system are Lungs and Diaphragm. Diaphragm is a thin muscular partition, horizontally dividing the cavity into Chest cavity and Abdominal cavity. Lungs are located in the chest, one each on either side of the wind pipe, above the diaphragm. When the diaphragm pulls down enlarging chest cavity, air is drawn into the lungs via Wind pipe. It is expelled out when the diaphragm returns to its normal position.

Lungs consist of millions of elastic sacs, folding over and over on themselves in pockets thinner than a sheet of paper. They constantly inflate and empty, taking in oxygen and unloading carbon dioxide.

Breathing troubles arise when the lungs do not function properly.

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